This document aims to be an extension to the Quickstart to help you better understand the structure of a workflow and write your own.

Prerequisite:

What you will learn:

1: Initialize Workflow Directory

Bootstrap a new workflow directory by running latch init from the command line.

$ latch init covid-wf --template subprocess
Created a latch workflow in `covid-wf`
Run
        $ latch register covid-wf
To register the workflow with console.latch.bio.

File Tree:

covid-wf
├── LICENSE
├── README.md
├── bowtie2
│   ├── bowtie2
│   └── ...
├── reference
│   ├── wuhan.1.bt2
│   └── ...
├── system-requirements.txt
├── version
└── wf
    ├── __init__.py
    ├── assemble.py
    └── sort.py

Once your boilerplate workflow has been created successfully, you should see a folder called covid-wf.

2. Writing your First Task

A task is a Python function that takes in inputs and returns outputs to the Latch platform or to another task. In the assemble.py file inside the covid-wf/wf directory, there is a task which ingests two sequencing reads and outputs an assembled SAM file.

Working with LatchFiles and LatchDirs

LatchFile and LatchDir are types built into the Latch SDK which allow users to use files and directories stored remotely on Latch as inputs and outputs to workflows. They point to remote file locations in our user interface on the Latch Console and implement the necessary operations to ensure data is available in the task environment and outputs are uploaded to your Latch account.

The first time you read or resolve the path of a file or directory in a task, the data will be downloaded and will be accessible within the task. For example the line local_file = Path(read1) in the snippet below will download the file from Latch and return a path to the local copy.

from latch.types import LatchFile, LatchOutputDir
...

@small_task
def assembly_task(
    read1: LatchFile, read2: LatchFile, output_directory: LatchOutputDir
) -> LatchFile:

    local_file = Path(read1)
    ...

Sometimes, a python task does not directly access a file/directory, but uses its path; for example, through a subprocessed shell command. We can ensure that the file’s data is present by accessing the local_path attribute of the LatchFile or LatchDir. This will download the data into the task environment and return back a path to the local file or directory.

bowtie2_cmd = [
    "bowtie2/bowtie2",
    "--local",
    "--very-sensitive-local",
    "-x",
    "wuhan",
    "-1",
    read1.local_path,
    "-2",
    read2.local_path,
    "-S",
    str(sam_file),
]

Returning a LatchFile or LatchDirectory from a task will upload it to the latch platform in the location specified by the second argument. For example, after running a task which ends in the following snippet, the file covid_assembly.sam will be available in the root directory of Latch Data.

    local_file = Path("/root/covid_assembly.sam")
    return LatchFile(local_file, "latch:///covid_assembly.sam")

Here, LatchFile(...) takes as input two values: the first is the local filepath and the second is the target remote file location on Latch. Remote paths on Latch start with the prefix latch:///.

3. Define compute and storage requirements

Specifying compute and storage requirements is as easy as using a Python decorator.

from latch import small_task

@small_task # 2 cpus, 4 gigs of memory, 0 gpus
def my_task(
    ...
):
    ...

@large_gpu_task #31 cpus, 120 gigs of memory, 1 gpu
def inference(
    ...
):
    ...

See an exhaustive reference to larger CPU and GPU tasks here.

To arbitrarily specify resource requirements, use:

from latch import custom_task

@custom_task(cpu, memory)
def my_task(
    ...
):
    ...

4. Manage installation for third-party dependencies

Internally, Latch uses Dockerfiles for dependency management, which are automatically generated from environment files or handwritten.

Install samtools and autoconf by adding them to the dependency list in system-requirements.txt:

samtools
autoconf

Set an environment variable for bowtie2 using an environment file:

BOWTIE2_INDEXES=reference

Now run latch dockerfile . to examine the auto generated Dockerfile:

# latch base image + dependencies for latch SDK --- removing these will break the workflow
from 812206152185.dkr.ecr.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/latch-base:ace9-main
run pip install latch==2.12.1
run mkdir /opt/latch

# install system requirements
copy system-requirements.txt /opt/latch/system-requirements.txt
run apt-get update --yes && xargs apt-get install --yes </opt/latch/system-requirements.txt

# copy all code from package (use .dockerignore to skip files)
copy . /root/

# set environment variables
env BOWTIE2_INDEXES=reference

# latch internal tagging system + expected root directory --- changing these lines will break the workflow
arg tag
env FLYTE_INTERNAL_IMAGE $tag
workdir /root

See the Workflow Environment page for further information configuring the environment for other use dependencies such as R or Conda.

5. Customize user interface

There are two pages that you can customize: the About page for your workflow and a Parameters page for workflow input parameters.

To modify the About page, simply write your description in Markdown in the docstring of the workflow function. Description UI

Latch provides a suite of front-end components out-of-the-box that can be defined by using Python objects LatchMetadata and LatchParameter:

from latch.types import LatchAuthor, LatchDir, LatchFile, LatchMetadata, LatchParameter

...
"""The metadata included here will be injected into your interface."""
metadata = LatchMetadata(
    display_name="Assemble and Sort FastQ Files",
    documentation="your-docs.dev",
    author=LatchAuthor(
        name="John von Neumann",
        email="hungarianpapi4@gmail.com",
        github="github.com/fluid-dynamix",
    ),
    repository="https://github.com/your-repo",
    license="MIT",
    parameters={
        "read1": LatchParameter(
            display_name="Read 1",
            description="Paired-end read 1 file to be assembled.",
            batch_table_column=True,  # Show this parameter in batched mode.
        ),
        "read2": LatchParameter(
            display_name="Read 2",
            description="Paired-end read 2 file to be assembled.",
            batch_table_column=True,  # Show this parameter in batched mode.
        ),
    },
)


...

The metadata variable then needs to be passed into the @workflow decorator to apply the interface to the workflow.

@workflow(metadata)
def assemble_and_sort(read1: LatchFile, read2: LatchFile) -> LatchFile:
    ...

Preview the workflow’s interface

To preview the user interface for your workflow, first make sure you are inside your workflow directory.

$ ls

Dockerfile      reference       version         wf

Then, type the following command:

latch preview assemble_and_sort

Make sure what comes after preview is the exactly same as the name of your workflow function.

latch preview will open up a browser displaying your interface.

6. Add test data for your workflow

First, you’d need to upload your test data to a remote S3 bucket using latch test-data command.

The example files are hosted on AWS S3 and are publicly available for download. Thus, they should only contain information that can be made publicly available.

$ latch test-data upload <path_to_local_file>

Confirm that your file has been successfully uploaded:

$ latch test-data ls

Listing your managed objects by full S3 path.

s3://latch-public/test-data/<your_account_id>/<name_of_local_file>

Now, you can use Latch LaunchPlan to add test data to your workflow.

from latch.resources.launch_plan import LaunchPlan

# Add launch plans at the end of your wf/__init__.py
LaunchPlan(
    assemble_and_sort,
    "Protocol Template 1",
    {
        "read1": LatchFile("s3://latch-public/init/r1.fastq"),
        "read2": LatchFile("s3://latch-public/init/r2.fastq"),
    },
)

LaunchPlan(
    assemble_and_sort,
    "Protocol Template 2",
    {
        "read1": LatchFile("s3://latch-public/init/r1.fastq"),
        "read2": LatchFile("s3://latch-public/init/r2.fastq"),
    },
)

These default values will be available under the ‘Test Data’ dropdown at Latch Console.

Launch Plan

7. Register your workflow to Latch

You can release a live version of your workflow by registering it on Latch:

latch register --remote <path_to_workflow_dir>

The registration process will:

  • Build a Docker image containing your workflow code
  • Serialize your code and register it with your LatchBio account
  • Push your docker image to a managed container registry

When registration has completed, you should be able to navigate here and see your new workflow in your account.

8. Test your workflow

Using Latch Console

To test your first workflow on Console, select the Test Data and click Launch. Statuses of workflows can be monitored under the Executions tab.

Interface UI

Using Latch CLI

Using latch get-wf, you can view the names of all workflows available in your workspace:

$ latch get-wf

ID     	Name                                          	Version
65047	wf.deseqf.deseq2_wf                       	0.0.1r
67056	wf.__init__.aggregate_bulk_rna_seq_counts 	0.0.2-eb5e84
67649	wf.__init__.align_with_salmon             	0.0.0-4cd8db
67628	wf.__init__.alphafold_wf                  	v2.2.3+46
67617   wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort               0.0.1

To launch the workflow on Latch Console from the CLI, first generate a parameters file by using latch get-params and passing in the name of your workflow like so:

$ latch get-params wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort

which will return a parameters file called wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort.params.py, whose contents are as below:

"""Run `latch launch wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort.params.py` to launch this workflow"""

from latch.types import LatchFile

params = {
    "_name": "wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort", # Don't edit this value.
    "read1": LatchFile("latch:///foobar"), # <class 'latch.types.file.LatchFile'>
    "read2": LatchFile("latch:///foobar"), # <class 'latch.types.file.LatchFile'>
}

To launch a workflows with parameters specified in the above file, use:

$ latch launch [--version=VERSION] wf.__init__.assemble_and_sort.params.py

You can view execution statuses from the CLI, run:

$ latch get-executions

Executions TUI

The command will open up a Terminal UI with the same capabilities on the Executions page on the Latch Platform, where you will see a list of executions, tasks, and logs for easy debugging.